The foundation is the principal part of a building structure. One must take all the required steps to ensure its long life. As any construction is built upon it, a foundation can be of different types.
The life of a house is dependent on its foundation. The most prominent problems in a home are dampness and waterlogging, which are due to no or improper use of waterproofing products. Moisture in the soil seeps into the basement and provides the environment for mould formation due to seepage. Plenty of waterproofing products in India are available for waterproofing building foundation.
Waterlogging is a severe problem for a site engineer. Several methods are available to flight waterlogging depending upon the depth of water table, depth of excavation, and other factors. Some of the ways are as follows:
- Chemical consolidation process: Soil is converted into semi-solid by the addition of chemicals such as calcium chloride and soda silicates as waterproofing products.
- Freezing process: This method is advantageous in the construction of deep excavation foundations for bridges over water bodies. A cofferdam is created by freezing the soil around the area to be excavated. Freezing pipes are passed into the land. The freezing liquid is then passed on, which freezes the region. Thus, the region becomes safe and comfortable to excavate.
- Electroosmosis process: In the process, the steel rod is positively charged to act as an electrode and is sunk between well-points. It is an expensive method, which is rarely used.
- Construction of drain: Drains of a fixed size are dug up along the sides of the foundation trench. They collect the subsoil water, which can then be easily pumped out. This is an easy method and does not require skilled labour.
- Construction of deep well: 30 to 60 cm diameter wells are constructed at 6 to 15 m, and centres all around the site. The water collected is pumped out. This method can be adopted in case of high depth excavations.
- Foundation Drainage System: Perforated pipes are kept running along the perimeters of the foundation to an outlet outside where water can be collected. This method protects against any basement water contamination.
- Damp Proof Course (DPC): DPC is nothing but a horizontal barrier on the wall structure whose purpose is to stop moisture coming in from the foundation into the structure.